the great new Email::Sender

Yesterday I released Email::Sender 1.300003. This is a pretty important release!

First, it is the first production release of Email::Sender to use Moo instead of Moose. This doesn’t affect my code much, because I use Moose all over the place already. On the other hand, your code might speed right up. On my laptop, for example, the test suite now runs in 20% the time it used to. I’m hoping this helps people feel freer to move to Email::Sender, which really does make life easier for writing email-related code than previous email sending libraries did.

So, I’m delighted to have the work of Justin Hunter and Christian Walde in place, making the Moo-ification possible, not to mention that of Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsåker, Frew Schmidt, and Matt S Trout on porting Throwable to Moo, which was essential to making the rest of the conversion possible. Thanks!

Like I said, though, the Moo-ification doesn’t change most of my code very much (yet?), but I’m still very excited. Why is that?

Right now, I’ve got a large stack of “technical debt payment” tasks scheduled at work. Many of these are quite old, and many are in the form “we switched 90% of our code to some new system, but 10% remains on the old system; convert the final 10% so we can reduce our total code complexity.” We talk about this at the office as “killing snowflakes.” Look, that subsystem is unique and special and not like anything else! It is a delicate, beautiful snowflake! Kill it!

Amongst those snowflakes being killed is our use of Email::Send. (Note the lack of the -er. This is the precursor to Email::Sender.) We don’t actually use Email::Send, exactly, because it’s so broken. Instead, we use an internal fork, the design of which strongly influenced the eventual creation of Email::Sender. It really had to go!

Unfortunately, it wasn’t quite possible yet.

One of the great strengths of Email::Sender::Simple is that you can redirect all mail by setting an environment variable. This is very useful in tests, where you can say something like:



my @deliveries = Email::Sender::Simple->default_transport->deliveries;

…and then inspect what mail would have been sent. Of course, doing this via an environment variable within one process isn’t that compelling. You could just assign a global. On the other hand, this is a big deal:



my @deliveries = deliveries_from_db('email.db');

This is useful for testing something like an exploder that forks to do its work. The next step is testing how code behaves when the email transport fails. This has always been possible with the Failable transport, which wraps another transport and forces failures however the programmer likes. Unfortunately, it works via code references, which can’t be easily passed in the environment. What’s worse is that it turned out that no configuration could be passed to a wrapped transport via the environment. Oops!

This has been fixed! So, imagine this extremely simple (but quite useful) wrapper:

package Test::FailMailer;
use Moo;
extends 'Email::Sender::Transport::Wrapper';

use MooX::Types::MooseLike::Base qw(Int);

has fail_every    => (is => 'ro', isa => Int, required => 1);
has current_count => (is => 'rw', isa => Int, default  => sub { 0 });

around send_email => sub {
  my ($orig, $self, $email, $env, @rest) = @_;

  my $count = $self->current_count + 1;

  my $f = $self->fail_every;
  if ($f and $count % $f == 0) {
    Email::Sender::Failure->throw("programmed to fail every $f message(s)");

  return $self->$orig($email, $env, @rest);

This makes it easy to say “every third message fails.” Then, to make your test configure it for spawned processes:

$ENV{EMAIL_SENDER_TRANSPORT_fail_every}      = '3';
$ENV{EMAIL_SENDER_TRANSPORT_transport_class} = 'SQLite';
$ENV{EMAIL_SENDER_TRANSPORT_transport_arg_db_file} = 'failtest.db';


my @deliveries = deliveries_from_db('failtest.db');


Using these tools together (in their internal-Email::Send-like version) was instrumental to allowing us to confidently refactor our code, because we could test it in ways we never could before. Now that everything has been moved to one email library, it’s even easier to rely on these testing systems. I’m looking forward to improving them even more.

Written on February 7, 2013
📧 email
🐪 perl
🧑🏽‍💻 programming