email::send to be written off; email::sender supplants it

I was long at least tangentially involved in the development of the Email:: namespace’s early code. I talked with Casey West often when he was working on Email::MIME and Email::Send. Once I started working at Pobox, though, my email needs became much more serious.

At Pobox, I found a lot of really cool code for doing email stuff, but it wasn’t very uniformly distributed. There were too many ways to do this or that, and that made troubleshooting a real pain. I really wanted to reduce the number of tools being used, and one of the big problem areas was in injecting email into our mailflow.

I figured we could use Email::Send, since it was fairly recent and was meant to be pluggable and extensible. What I found, though, was that both of these qualities were fairly limited, and a few design problems with the code made it very, very hard to correct those problems. On February 2, 2006, I contacted Casey to tell him my specific concerns and offer some of the patches I’d been toying around with internally. That was probably when I really got on track to become the poor sap keeping track of Email:: and friends.

Over time, it became clear that to really fix the problems we had with Email::Send, we’d need to break backwards compatibility in a few ways. Internally, we wrote a new Email::Send subclass called Email::Send::Mailer, which was just an abstract base class that enforced a stricter API for mailers. We patched Email::Send to work with mailers that were objects and to remove the “message modifier” feature, which got in the way of passing arguments to the mailers.

The big win here was that we entirely eliminated the use of Return::Value – probably one of the worst ideas I unleashed on the CPAN – and made sure that all our Mailer subclasses could set the envelope information distinctly from the message header. This is a really, really imporant point, so I’ll elaborate a bit.

Here’s a simple email message:

From: Ricardo Signes <>
To:   Perl Email Project <>
Subject: all your modules are belong to us

Sure, I'd be happy to fix bugs in Email::MIME.


If you send this message with the existing Email::Send code, it will more or less have to be sent to the address at This is fine for many cases, but often it’s not. For example, if I was implementing the mailing list manager that sends this mail, I’d want each recipient to get the message from a unique SMTP-time sender. This is called the envelope sender, and is distinct from the From header. If you can’t specify the envelope distinctly from the header, you have a major handicap.

So, with the envelope problem solved and Return::Value replaced with the use of exceptions, we had a really useful way write mail transports. Next, I built a layer of indirection atop those transports so that no program ever had to think about the transport it would use. Normally they’d inject into the local SMTP service, but if we wanted to we could run the program with an environment variable set to capture all the mail into a Maildir, or an SQLite database, or we could just throw it away.

It is difficult for me to express how important that indirection layer became. It made any email-sending code almost trivial to test. We wrote a mailer that could cause predictable failures and we could then test how our code would behave in the face of adversity. We could run any command that sent out email, but have that email discarded instead, if we didn’t want to send out noisy updates. Within a few months, nearly all of the code at Pobox used this system.

The big problem was that we couldn’t just release it. It didn’t have enough test coverage – sure, it sends millions of messages a day, but we didn’t have enough tests we could ship – and a few too many things were tied to our internal code. What’s worse, it relied on our backcompat-breaking changes to Email::Send, which was too popular to risk breaking in horrible ways.

Writing a replacement for Email::Send, based on what we’d learned writing Email::Send::Mailer and Pobox::Sendmail seemed like a really great route forward. Of course, since we already had our problems solved internally, this wasn’t much of a priority.

Eventually, though, it got written, and this week I’ve made the first dev releases of Email::Sender::Simple, a greatly improved version of our own Pobox::Sendmail. I’ve also tried to improve the documentation available for new users, leading to the Email::Sender quick start guide.

It could still use more coverage, but 88.7% isn’t bad. It’s at least as easy to use as Email::Send, far more flexible, far easier to maintain, test, and extend. I hope to keep improving the code and its documentation, and I hope that I can convince people to move away from Email::Send and toward Email::Sender. I’ll be happier to support better code and users will be happier to have a simpler interface.

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Written on June 7, 2009
📧 email
🐪 perl
🧑🏽‍💻 programming